|Subject: SPACE COLONY USED IN THE GUNDAM UNIVERSE Fri Dec 11, 2009 1:23 am|| |
THIS A VIDEO I GOT FROM YOUTUBE ABOUT NASA SPACE COLONY PROJECT
Space Colonies also known as space habitats are commonly used in the gundam anime series, every gundam universe have their own space colony..but have you ever wondered where did the japanese get the idea of using space colonies? these space colonies are often placed at called lagrange point.
space colony was designed and created by Gerard Kitchen O'Neill he was an American physicist and space activist. As a faculty member of Princeton University, he invented a device called the particle storage ring for high-energy physics experiments. Later, he invented a magnetic launcher called the mass driver. In the 1970s, he developed a plan to build human settlements in outer space, including a space habitat design known as the O'Neill cylinder. He founded the Space Studies Institute, an organization devoted to funding research into space manufacturing and colonization.
Gerard Kitchen O'Neill
O'Neill began researching high-energy particle physics at Princeton in 1954 after he received his doctorate from Cornell University. Two years later, he published his theory for a particle storage ring. This invention allowed particle physics experiments at much higher energies than had previously been possible. In 1965 at Stanford University, he performed the first colliding beam physics experiment.
While teaching physics at Princeton, O'Neill became interested in the possibility that humans could live in outer space. He researched and proposed a futuristic idea for human settlement in space, the O'Neill cylinder, in "The Colonization of Space", his first paper on the subject. He held a conference on space manufacturing at Princeton in 1975. Many who became post-Apollo-era space activists attended. O'Neill built his first mass driver prototype with professor Henry Kolm in 1976. He considered mass drivers critical for extracting the mineral resources of the Moon and asteroids. His award-winning book The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space inspired a generation of space exploration advocates. He died of leukemia in 1992.
the first series mobile suit gundam's space colony is called helium 3,is an O'Neill Island 3 type colony
in after colony gundam wing they used a colony which is based on o'niell Stanford "Island 2" type colony also located at a lagrange point 3.
in after war gundam X they used a colony O'Neill "Island 3" type colony cylinders
in cosmic era gundams they used a Bernal Island 1 located at lagrange point 4, these space colony are populated by coordinators the colony is called Junius Seven.
and lastly the anno domini era which is our real timeline..often called the real world it is our real world the difference is gundams and mobile suits exists..in this realistic era they used a Stanford torus colony, Krung Threp space colony, operated by Celestial Being as the manufacturing and testing site for their Gundams,
Human Reform League's Quanqiu Bernal Sphere-type colony, which is connected to a solar power collection satellite and is home to a Supersoldier developmental facility; and a colony owned by the Union. By 2312, when the Earth Sphere Federation was founded, they had created another colony from beyond the asteroid belt.
the space colony was designed long ago but it isn't possible to live in these colonies because of some disadvantages, but before that i will give you first the advantage of living in a space colony
Space habitats orbiting Earth have a number of potential advantages over those on the surface of other planets:
1-Adjustable artificial gravity, via changing a colony's rotation speed. This attribute is important if humans born and raised on the colonies are to be able to return to Earth. It is expected that those born on low-gravity bodies (such as the Moon or Mars) could result in insufficient skeletal strength to function effectively in Earth's higher gravity without significant habilitation.
2-Access to vast resources, including the material of the solar system's asteroids (see Asteroid mining).
3-Constant access to solar energy.
4-Immense population capacity. Using the free-floating resources of the solar system, current estimates extend into the trillions
5-Earth to space habitat trade would be easier than Earth to planetary colony trade, as colonies orbiting Earth will not have a gravity well to overcome to export to Earth, and a smaller gravity well to overcome to import from Earth.
Space habitats must solve a number of problems in order to maintain healthy normal human populations:
Initial capital outlay
Even the smallest of the habitat designs mentioned below is more massive than the total mass of all items ever launched by mankind into earth orbit. Prerequisites to building habitats are either cheaper launch costs or a mining and manufacturing base on the Moon or other body having low delta-v from the desired station orbit.
Internal life support systems
Air pressure, with normal partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, is a basic requirement of any space habitat. Basically, most space colony designs propose large, thin-walled pressure vessels. The required oxygen could be obtained from lunar rock. Nitrogen is most easily available from the Earth, but is also recycled nearly perfectly. Also, nitrogen in the form of ammonia may be obtainable from comets and the moons of outer planets. Nitrogen may also be available in unknown quantities on certain other bodies in the outer solar system. The air of a colony could be recycled in a number of ways. The most obvious method is to use photosynthetic gardens, possibly via hydroponics or forest gardening.
However, these do not remove certain industrial pollutants, such as volatile oils, and excess simple molecular gases. The standard method used on nuclear submarines, a similar form of closed environment, is to use a catalytic burner, which effectively removes most organics. Further protection might be provided by a small cryogenic distillation system which would gradually remove impurities such as mercury vapor, and noble gases that cannot be catalytically burned.
Organic materials for food production would also need to be provided. At first, most of these would have to be imported from the moon, asteroids, or the Earth. After that, recycling should reduce the need for imports. One proposed recycling method would start by burning the cryogenic distillate, plants, garbage and sewage with air in an electric arc, and distilling the result.
The resulting carbon dioxide and water would be immediately usable in agriculture. The nitrates and salts in the ash could be dissolved in water and separated into pure minerals. Most of the nitrates, potassium and sodium salts would effectively recycle as fertilizers. Other minerals containing iron, nickel, and silicon could be chemically purified in batches and reused industrially. The small fraction of remaining materials, well below 0.01% by weight, could be processed into pure elements with zero-gravity mass spectrography, and added in appropriate amounts to the fertilizers and industrial stocks. This method's only current existence is a proof considered by NASA studies.[
It's likely that methods would be greatly refined as people began to actually live in space habitats.
Long-term on-orbit studies have proven that zero gravity weakens bones and muscles, and upsets calcium metabolism and immune systems. Most people have a continual stuffy nose or sinus problems, and a few people have dramatic, incurable motion sickness. Most colony designs would rotate in order to use inertial forces to simulate gravity. NASA studies with chickens and plants have proven that this is an effective physiological substitute for gravity.
Turning one's head rapidly in such an environment causes a "tilt" to be sensed as one's inner ears move at different rotational rates. Centrifuge studies show that people get motion-sick in habitats with a rotational radius of less than 100 metres, or with a rotation rate above 3 rotations per minute. However, the same studies and statistical inference indicate that almost all people should be able to live comfortably in habitats with a rotational radius larger than 500 meters and below 1 RPM. Experienced persons were not merely more resistant to motion sickness, but could also use the effect to determine "spinward" and "antispinward" directions in the centrifuges.
Protection from hostile external environment
Radiation: Space radiation has two distinct problems. One is that cosmic rays expose one to 80 millisieverts of radiation per year, well above the maximum safe occupational threshold of 50 mSv, and well above the healthy population maximum of 3 mSv. Another, separate issue is that solar flares occasionally emit very large amounts of soft x-rays, and energetic particles. When these events occur, they can exceed 4 sieverts, the lethal dose for half the population. The most interesting result of the studies was the discovery that large space habitats are effectively shielded by their structure and air, which easily exceeds the two meters of steel needed.
Smaller habitats could be shielded by stationary (nonrotating) bags of rock. Sunlight could be admitted indirectly via mirrors in radiation-proof louvres, which would function in the same manner as a periscope.
Heat rejection: The colony is in a vacuum, and therefore resembles a giant thermos bottle.
The sunlight to radiated energy ratio can be reduced and controlled with large venetian blinds. Habitats also need a radiator to eliminate heat from absorbed sunlight and organisms. Very small habitats might have a central vane that rotates with the colony. In this design, convection would raise hot air "up" (toward the center), and cool air would fall down into the outer habitat. Some other designs would distribute coolants, such as chilled water from a central radiator. Because blinds and radiators might be a major expense, inexpensive habitats might be very warm.
Foreign objects: The habitat would need to withstand potential impacts from space debris, meteoroids, dust, etc.
Transportation and maneuvering
Orbital stationkeeping: The optimal habitat orbits are still debated, and so orbital stationkeeping is probably a commercial issue. The lunar L4 and L5 orbits are now thought to be too far away from the moon and Earth. A more modern proposal is to use a two-to-one resonance orbit that alternately has a close, low-energy (cheap) approach to the moon, and then to the Earth. This provides quick, inexpensive access to both raw materials and the major market. Most colony designs plan to use electromagnetic tether propulsion, or mass drivers used as rocket motors. The advantage of these is that they either use no reaction mass at all, or use cheap reaction mass.
Attitude control: Most mirror geometries require something on the habitat to be aimed at the sun and so attitude control is necessary. The original O'Neill design used the two cylinders as momentum wheels to roll the colony, and pushed the sunward pivots together or apart to use precession to change their angle. Later designs rotated in the plane of their orbit, with their windows pointing at right angles to the sunlight, and used lightweight mirrors that could be steered with small electric motors to follow the sun.
Designs proposed in NASA studies included:
Bernal sphere - "Island One", a spherical habitat for about 20,000 people.
Stanford torus - A larger alternative to "Island One."
O'Neill cylinder - "Island Three" (pictured), the largest design.
Lewis One A cylinder of radius 250m with a non rotating radiation shielding. The shielding protects the micro-gravity industrial space, too. The rotating part is 450 long and has several inner cylinders. Some of them are used for agriculture.
Kalpana One, revisedA short cylinder with 250 m radius and 325 m length. The radiation shielding is 10 t/m2 and rotates. It has several inner cylinders for agriculture and recreaction.
A "bolo," a spacecraft or habitat connected by a cable to a counterweight or other habitat. This design has been proposed as a Mars ship, initial construction shack for a space habitat, and orbital hotel. It has a comfortably long and slow rotational radius for a relatively small station mass. Also, if some of the equipment can form the counter-weight, the equipment dedicated to artificial gravity is just a cable, and thus has a much smaller mass-fraction than in other designs. This makes it a tempting design for a deep-space ship. For a long-term habitation, however, radiation shielding must rotate with the habitat, and is extremely heavy, thus requiring a much stronger and heavier cable.
"Beaded habitats"; this speculative design was also considered by the NASA studies, and found to have a roughly equivalent mass fraction of structure and therefore comparable costs. Small habitats would be mass-produced to standards that allow the habitats to interconnect. A single habitat can operate alone as a bolo. However, further habitats can be attached, to grow into a "dumbbell" then a "bow-tie," then a ring, then a cylinder of "beads," and finally a framed array of cylinders. Each stage of growth shares more radiation shielding and capital equipment, increasing redundancy and safety while reducing the cost per person. This design was originally proposed by a professional architect because it can grow much like Earth-bound cities, with incremental individual investments, unlike designs that require large start-up investments. The main disadvantage is that the smaller versions use a large amount of structure to support the radiation shielding, which rotates with them. In large sizes, the shielding becomes economical, because it grows roughly as the square of the colony radius. The number of people, their habitats and the radiators to cool them grow roughly as the cube of the colony radius.
Bubbleworld; The Bubbleworld, or Inside/Outside concept, was originated in 1964 by Dandridge M. Cole and Donald W. Cox in a nonfiction book called Islands in Space: The Challenge of the Planetoids.
The concept calls for a large asteroid of iron or nickel-iron composition to have a tunnel drilled through its longest axis of rotation and filled with a volatile substance, possibly water. A very large solar reflector would be constructed nearby, focusing solar heat onto the asteroid, first to weld and seal the tunnel ends, then more diffusely to slowly heat the entire outer surface. As the metal softens, the water inside expands and inflates the mass, while rotational forces help shape it into a cylindrical form. Once expanded and allowed to cool, it can be spun to produce artificial gravity, and the interior filled with soil, air and water. By creating a slight bulge in the middle of the cylinder, a ring-shaped lake can be made to form. Reflectors will allow sunlight to enter and to be directed where needed. Clearly, this method would require a significant human and industrial presence in space to be at all feasible.
The Bubbleworld concept was popularized by science fiction author Larry Niven. Niven used the idea in his fictional Known Space stories, describing these worlds as the primary habitats of the Belters, a civilization who had colonized the Asteroid Belt.
if ever that living in a space colony is possible would you like to live in an outer space colony sattelite?